Discipline Profile: Central Texas & El Paso

Discipline Profile data for
Central Texas & El Paso.


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Discipline Profile

Research shows that exclusionary disciplinary referrals are an ineffective intervention for long-term shifts in students’ behavior in the classroom, and have negative effects on overall student outcomes. Exclusionary discipline has been shown to increase dropout rates and the likelihood of criminal justice involvement, while also reducing school engagement. These effects are intensified for students of color and students with disabilities, the student groups who receive referrals that take them out of the classroom at disproportionately high rates. When education systems commit to alternative discipline practices like restorative justice, positive behavioral interventions, and trauma-informed response, student engagement overall wellbeing increase. In the data analyses below, we examine referrals that remove a student from the classroom, such as in-school or out-of-school suspension, expulsion, or placement in a Disciplinary Alternative Education Program (DAEP)/Juvenile Justice Alternative Education Program (JJAEP).

For more information about this data, please click here.


28,635 / 390,411

Central Texas

Disciplinary Referral Rate


16,645 / 178,416

El Paso

Disciplinary Referral Rate

Disciplinary Referrals Decreasing in Last Decade

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Disparities Exist in Disciplinary Referrals by Household Income

Disparities in Disciplinary Referrals by Household Income Have Not Decreased in Texas

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Disciplinary Referrals Vary by Race

Disparities in Referrals by Race Persist Over Time

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Digging Deeper: Income, Gender, and Race Play a Role in Disciplinary Referrals

Disciplinary Referral Rates, 2023

Compare your District and Campuses to Others Using the Scatterplots Below

Target Name: Central Texas | Target: CTX

Economic Status



About this data:

E3 Alliance relies primarily on data from the University of Texas Education Research Center (ERC). This data allows for a year-by-year understanding of disciplinary referrals based on where a student attends school. This data pertains to Pre-K through 12th grade students who were enrolled within the state of Texas at the end of a given school year.

Following are items to note:

Disciplinary referral rates reflect whether a student received one or more referrals that resulted in removal from a classroom. There is a delay in data availability due to state approval within the ERC and analysis time. As such, if you choose to explore data from Central Texas, the graphs below present disciplinary referral data in the most recent available year in Texas schools.

Outcomes that reference data from 2021, 2022, or 2023 do not include San Marcos CISD, due to a data discrepancy.

The conclusions of this research do not necessarily reflect the opinions or official position of the Texas Education Agency, the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board, or the State of Texas.